The problem with the current breed of HTTP servlet session distribution mechanisms
is that they do not scale well. I have just tried the first release of
WADI ‘Web Application Distribution Infrastructure’, and it
shows great promise as a next-generation session distribution mechanism that can be used for
simple load balancing, as well as huge multi redundant clusters.
Web applications are put into clusters with one or more of the following aims:
Scalability: to use N nodes to increase throughput almost N times.
Availability: to use N nodes to ensure that after N-1 failures,
request will find at least 1 node running the application.
Fault Tolerance: to use N nodes to ensure that after N-1 failures, the
results of previous requests are correctly available to the application.
Unfortunately, these aims are not always mutually compatible, nor completely understood
by those who want to implement a cluster. Also, the components that are used to make a cluster
(load balancers, session replicators, EJB replications, distributed databases) all have
different focuses with respect to these aims. Thus it is important to remember why you
want a cluster and not to make the aims of a single component dominate your own.
The current crop of load balancers (eg.
Pound and IP routers) are very good at scalability
and quickly distribute the HTTP requests to a node in a cluster. But they are not so good
at fault tolerance as once a failure occurs, the mechanisms for selecting the correct node for
a request are replaced by a “pick a node, any node” approach.
The currently available
HTTP session distribution mechanisms
have mostly been written with fault tolerance in mind. When a node
receives some session data, it immediately attempts to replicate it somewhere else. Thus the session is
broadcast on the network or persisted in a database, and significant extra load is generated. Because
load balancers cannot be trusted to select the correct node, the session is often distributed to
all nodes. Thus in an N node cluster, every node must store and broadcast it’s own sessions while
receiving and storing the session from N-1 other nodes. This is great for
fault tolerance but a disaster for scalability. Rarely is 1+1>1 or even 1+1+1+1>1 and throughput
is inversely proportional to cluster size. Worse still, the complexity of the mechanism often
results in more failures and less availability.
It is difficult to achieve scalability and/or availability with a session distribution mechanism
that has been designed for fault tolerance. Thus, many clusters do not use session distribution.
Unfortunately this has its own problems, as load balancers are not perfect at sticking a session
to a node in a cluster. For example, if IP stickiness is used and the client is on AOL, then their
source IP can change mid session and the load balancers will route the requests to the wrong node.
To handle the imperfections of load balancers, a subset of session distribution is needed – namely
Session migration is the initial focus of WADI, so
that it can provide scalability and availability to match the available load balancers.
However, WADIs extensible architecture has also been designed for fault tolerance, so eventually
it will be able to handle all the concerns of clustering Servlet sessions.
WADI has been simply integrated with the
Tomcat Servlet containers. For normal operation, it adds very
little overhead to session access. Only the cost of synchronizing
requests to the session and of some AOP interceptors. Expensive mechanisms such as migration or
persistence are only used when a node has been shutdown or a load balancer has directed the
request to a different node.
When a WADI node receives a request for which it has no session data, it can ask the cluster
for the location of the session. This can either be on another node or in persistant storage (after
a timeout or graceful node shutdown). The request can then be directed to the correct node or the session can
be migrated to the current node.
WADI is still alpha software, but is actively being developed by
of Core Developers Network and should soon be included with
Jetty 5 and Geronimo.